These are all highly complex and dynamic tree based systems, under severe pressure for change in rapidly changing world, though securing a unique level of multiple public goods and services increasingly valued by society. These systems have developed in contexts of scarce natural resources, being highly performant in facing these constraints and securing at the same time a sustainable occupation of these territories. In today’s globalized world and increased competition in global markets, they are facing increasing pressures for intensification or extensification, threatening their own balance and survival. The transformation of these systems will bring increased risks of soil and other natural resources degradation and socio-economic decay, in the concerned regions. Due to their ancient origins, all over the world, these systems have with them the cultural identity of regional communities, which are thus in this way also threatened. On another side, they are increasingly valued by society, from the local to the global level, due to the multiple goods and services they provide. These should create the conditions for new adaptive management models and public policy intervention that can create novel sustainability conditions for the silvo-pastoral systems, also in regions of environmental and economic marginality. For this, knowledge and practice need to come together and discuss problems and solutions, learning from each other experiences all around the globe.